If you feel that a child is in immediate danger, call the police on 999. You can also report concerns to the police on their non-emergency number, 101.
You can contact the relevant social care team at your local council to report a concern about a child or adult.
Children and young people who have been victims of a crime may need support to cope and recover. You don’t have to report the crime to the police to get support. You can find free, local support teams across England and Wales on the Victim and Witness Information site.
This guidance brings together sources of information about the main risks children may be particularly vulnerable to and signposts you to help and support available.
This guide also includes information on the support providers who can help you have effective conversations with a young person, especially if you are concerned for their safety.
Domestic abuse can have devastating consequences for children, and can have lifelong impacts on their mental and physical health and behaviour into adulthood.
Domestic abuse occurs between those who are, or have been, in relationships. It can also occur between family members, such as between teenagers and parents (known as adolescent to parent violence and abuse (APVA)).
Find out how to recognise and spot the signs of domestic abuse.
If you or someone you know is a victim of domestic abuse:
For help with parental conflict and relationship abuse:
- Co-Parent Hub – information for separated parents and advice to help you and your ex-partner to be good co-parents
Teenage relationship abuse
Teenagers can experience abuse in their own relationships, even if they aren’t living with the abuser:
Child sexual abuse and exploitation
When a child or young person is sexually abused, they are forced or tricked into sexual activities. They might not understand that what is happening is abuse or that it is wrong. They might be afraid to tell someone.
Sexual abuse can happen anywhere – and it can happen in person or online. It’s never a child’s fault they were sexually abused – it’s important to make sure children know this.
See the government’s definition of child sexual abuse and child sexual exploitation.
These are resources that can help:
- Stop Abuse Together – advice and support on how to keep your child safe
- report to the National Crime Agency – Child Exploitation and Online Protection command (NCA-CEOP) if you are concerned that your child has been a victim, or is at risk of becoming a victim, of online sexual abuse, or you are worried about the way someone has been communicating with your child online
- contact the NSPCC helpline 0808 800 5000 for support and advice if you have any concerns about your own or another child’s safety
- Stop It Now! – information and advice on concerns about someone’s behaviour, including children who may be displaying concerning sexual behaviour
- Talk Pants Guide for Parents – how to have age-appropriate conversations to help protect children from sexual abuse using simple, child-friendly language and give children the confidence and knowledge to stay safe
- Support for parents and carers to keep children safe online – resources to help keep children safe from different risks online, including child sexual abuse and ‘sexting’, and where to go to receive support and advice
Sexual assault referral centres
Sexual assault referral centres (SARCs) offer support services for children who have experienced sexual abuse or sexual violence, either recently or in the past.
Specially trained medical and support staff care for the child in a safe and comfortable environment and can arrange for ongoing support to help them recover physically and emotionally.
Steps are taken to ensure the child is protected from immediate harm and from any future harm. Partners, such as the police and social services, support the process and may be involved in arranging the initial referral to the SARC.
For additional advice and support, find your local sexual assault referral centre.
Criminal exploitation and county lines, serious violence and gangs
Children and young people at risk of serious violence or involved with gangs, county lines and criminal exploitation need help and support. They might be involved in violence, be pressured into doing things like stealing, carrying drugs or weapons or be abused, exploited and put into dangerous situations. Criminal exploitation can take place in person or online.
If your child is missing from home
Contact Missing People SafeCall service – or you have concerns about them being involved in gangs, drugs dealing or county lines exploitation.
SafeCall provides confidential and one-to-one support to children, but they also offer advice and guidance to parents and carers who are concerned and need support.
To speak to someone urgently, contact Missing People’s free, confidential helpline, which is open 9am to 11pm, 7 days a week.
Phone or text: 116 000
Although rare, increased online activity and feelings of stress and isolation may be exploited by online groomers to target vulnerable children and young people – including extremist influences seeking to radicalise vulnerable people.
Online exploitation is often hard to recognise. Sometimes there are clear warning signs – in other cases the changes are less obvious. Although some of these traits may be quite common among teenagers, taken together they could indicate that your child may need help. The Let’s Talk About It website lists some of these signs.
You know your child best and you will want to speak with them first. Check in with them and ask about what they are viewing, who they are speaking to and how they are feeling.
These are resources that can help:
Prevent can help your child get support to move away from harmful influences. The support can include help with education or careers advice, dealing with mental or emotional health issues, or digital safety training for parents.
You can also contact your local authority safeguarding team for help. Receiving support through Prevent is voluntary, confidential and not any form of criminal sanction.
Report online material promoting terrorism or extremism
You can report terrorist content you find online. More information about what to report and what happens when you make a report can be found on the Action Counters Terrorism campaign.
Online child safety
It is important for children and teenagers to stay safe online, whether that be in the classroom or at home. Parents and carers may be particularly concerned about the safety of their children online.
You can find more information about specific harms children may experience online including guidance and support to prevent and address these harms.
If you are worried that someone you know is suicidal, including your child, Samaritans provides advice on how you can support others.
It’s important that you take care of your own and your family’s mental health – there are lots of things you can do, and support is available if you need it.
- Action for Children – helps parents to spot the signs of poor mental health in their child and explains what to do to help
- NSPCC – a range of advice on how to support your child if you are concerned that they may be struggling with their mental health
- NHS advice – simple and practical advice to support your mental health and wellbeing, including advice on looking after children and young people.
- NHS England has published advice for parents, guardians and carers on how to help and support a child or young person
Contact the relevant social care team at your local council or through other referral routes if known. Report a concern about a child or adult to your local council.