#childsafety | NHS Prevent training and competencies framework


Context

Promoting equality and addressing health inequalities are at the heart of NHS England’s values. Throughout the development of the policies and processes cited in this document, we have given due regard to the need to:

  • eliminate discrimination, harassment and victimisation
  • advance equality of opportunity
  • foster good relations between people who share a relevant protected characteristic (as cited under the Equality Act 2010) and those who do not share it
  • reduce inequalities between patients in access to, and outcomes from, healthcare services
  • ensure services are provided in an integrated way where this might reduce health inequalities

Background

Preventing radicalisation

Healthcare staff will meet and treat people who may be vulnerable to being drawn into terrorism, and all staff have a responsibility to safeguard vulnerable individuals of all ages that they come into contact with. Preventing radicalisation sits alongside long-established duties on professionals to safeguard vulnerable children, young people and adults from exploitation from a range of other harms such as drugs, gangs and physical and sexual exploitation.

Radicalisation is a process by which an individual or group adopts increasingly extreme political, social, or religious ideals and aspirations that reject or undermine the status quo or undermine contemporary ideas and expressions of freedom of choice. Radicalisation is comparable to other forms of exploitation. It is a safeguarding issue that staff working in the health sector must be aware of.

Under the Prevent duty, the health sector is required to ensure that healthcare workers are able to identify early signs of an individual being drawn into radicalisation. Additionally, any provider commissioned using the NHS Standard Contract has a wider contractual safeguarding responsibility which includes Prevent. Staff must be able to recognise key signs of radicalisation and be confident in referring individuals to their organisational safeguarding lead thus enabling them to receive the support and intervention they require.

Prevent duty

Prevent is part of the government counter-terrorism strategy CONTEST and aims to reduce the threat to the UK from terrorism by stopping people becoming terrorists or supporting terrorism.

The objectives of Prevent are to:

  • tackle the causes of radicalisation and respond to the ideological challenge of terrorism
  • identify, safeguard and support those most at risk of radicalisation through early identification, intervention and support
  • enable those who have already engaged in terrorism to disengage and rehabilitate

Prevent focuses on all forms of terrorism and the Prevent strategy centres on safeguarding individuals by providing support and re-direction to individuals at risk of, or in the process of, being groomed and/or radicalised into terrorist activity, before any crime is committed.

Section 26 of the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015 places a duty on certain bodies in the exercise of their functions to have “due regard to the need to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism”. The health specified authorities in schedule 6 of the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015 are as follows:

  • an NHS trust established under section 25 of the National Health Service act 2006
  • an NHS foundation trust within the meaning given by section 30 of the National Health Service act 2005

The Prevent duty requires all specified authorities to ensure that there are mechanisms in place to enable health staff to understand the risk of radicalisation how to seek appropriate advice and support.

Further relevant legislation can be found in the section ‘References and relevant guidance’ below.

Introduction

The Prevent training and competencies framework has been developed to encourage a consistent approach to training and competency development in respect of Prevent and to ensure that NHS trusts and foundation trusts meet their legislative responsibilities to equip people to work effectively to safeguard and promote the welfare of children, young people and adults in relation to Prevent.

This document will also support NHS provider organisations, NHS commissioners and organisations providing services on behalf of the NHS, to meet contractual obligations in relation to safeguarding training, as set out in the NHS Standard Contract.

To ensure consistency in training and competency development, the framework should be used in conjunction with the intercollegiate documents:

This document provides a clear framework which identifies the competencies required for all healthcare staff, as well as setting out minimum training requirements. This framework uses the 6 levels of competence as outlined in the intercollegiate documents and gives examples of groups that fall within each of these:

  • level 1: all staff working in healthcare settings, including non-clinical managers and staff
  • level 2: all clinical and non-clinical staff who have regular contact with patients, their families or carers, or the public
  • level 3: all clinical staff working with adults, children, young people and/or their parents or carers, who could potentially contribute to assessing, planning, intervening and/or evaluating the health needs of a service user
  • level 4: specialist roles – named professionals
  • level 4 and 5: Prevent lead
  • level 5: specialist roles – designated professionals
  • level 6: and board level: chief executive officers, trust and health board executive and non-executive directors and/or members, commissioning body directors

This guidance framework provides best practice advice and is not statutory guidance.

Training needs analysis

Different staff groups require different levels of competence depending on:

  • their role
  • their level of contact with patients or service users
  • the nature of their work
  • their level of responsibility

As a minimum, all staff working in a healthcare setting must know what to do if there is a safeguarding concern regarding radicalisation and the referral procedure for this concern, which includes knowing whom to contact within their organisation to communicate their concerns or seek advice.

In line with the intercollegiate safeguarding documents, this framework identifies 6 levels of competence, and gives examples of groups that fall within each of these. Each level builds upon the competencies, knowledge and skills of the proceeding levels within the framework. Those requiring competencies at levels 1 to 5 should also possess the competencies at each of the preceding levels. It is important for practitioners to be aware of the overarching content of the framework in addition to any specific section related to their role.

It is at the discretion of the organisational lead for Prevent to conduct training needs analysis and they may decide that certain roles have additional responsibilities that require a higher level of training than stated below.

Staff groups are identified at each level, but these are not exhaustive lists and the staff groups identified are examples of the types of role which correspond to the stated level. Any reference to roles or sectors that are not subject to the Prevent duty (for example, clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) or integrated care systems (ICSs) (except those with additional clinical roles), general practitioners (GPs) and social care) are included as best practice. However, any provider commissioned under the NHS Standard Contract (section 32: safeguarding), including independent and private providers, should be adhering to the below guidance for training needs analysis and training and competencies.

Level 1 – all staff working in healthcare settings, including non-clinical managers and staff

Including, but not limited to:

  • administrative
  • caterers
  • community pharmacist counter staff
  • domestic staff
  • laboratory staff
  • maintenance staff
  • non-clinical staff working in primary healthcare settings
  • non-clinical staff working for independent contractors and commissioners (such as CCG or ICS staff, optometrists, contact lens and dispensing opticians and pharmacists) within the NHS[footnote 1]
  • peer support workers
  • porters
  • receptionists (in non-clinical settings)
  • security staff
  • transport staff
  • volunteers across healthcare services and service provision

Level 2 – all clinical and non-clinical staff who have regular contact with patients, their families or carers, or the public

Including, but not limited to:

  • 111 and 999 communication centre staff
  • administrators and reception staff for looked after children and safeguarding teams
  • allied healthcare practitioners
  • adult physicians and surgeons
  • ambulance staff (except paramedics, who require level 3)
  • anaesthetists
  • audiologists
  • clinic reception managers and receptionists
  • clinical researchers
  • contact lens and dispensing opticians
  • dental care professionals
  • dentists
  • eye clinic liaison officers
  • GP practice managers
  • GP practice safeguarding administrators
  • GP reception managers
  • healthcare students including medical, relevant allied health professional students, nursing students
  • IT and information management staff (including Caldicott guardians)
  • non-medical neurophysiologists
  • nurses working in adult acute and/or community services (except mental health nurses, practice nurses and nurse practitioners who require level 3)
  • nursing and midwifery registered and unregistered staff
  • nursing associates
  • optometrists
  • orthodontists
  • patient advocates
  • phlebotomists
  • radiologists
  • staff who work in virtual and/or online health settings who provide any healthcare online
  • time to talk services
  • all other adult orientated secondary care healthcare professionals, including technicians and interpreters

Level 3 – all clinical staff working with adults, children, young people and/or their parents or carers, who could potentially contribute to assessing, planning, intervening and/or evaluating the health needs of a service user

Including, but not limited to:

  • all doctors and health professionals working exclusively or predominantly with children and young people
  • care home managers
  • all children’s nurses
  • child play therapists and specialists
  • child psychologists
  • child psychotherapists
  • community psychiatric nurses
  • dentists
  • diagnostic radiographers
  • doctors in training (including foundation level doctors) who have posts in these level 3-affiliated specialties and with significant children and/or young person contact
  • family nurses (FNP)
  • forensic physicians
  • forensic nurses
  • GPs[footnote 1]
  • head of human resources
  • health professionals working in substance misuse services
  • health visitors
  • lead anaesthetist for safeguarding and/or level 3 anaesthetist
  • learning disability nurses (children and adult)
  • lead paediatric anaesthetists for safeguarding and/or level 3 anaesthetists
  • looked after children nurses
  • medical staff
  • all mental health staff (adult and child and adolescent mental health staff)
  • mental health access and assessment staff
  • midwives
  • neonatologists
  • obstetricians
  • all paediatricians
  • paediatric allied health professionals and allied health professionals working with children
  • paediatric intensivists
  • paediatric neurophysiologists
  • paediatric radiologists
  • paediatric surgeons
  • paramedics
  • perinatal staff
  • pharmacists
  • physician’s assistants working in any level 3 speciality
  • practice nurses (including nurse practitioners within primary care)
  • psychologists
  • psychotherapists
  • registered nurses working in emergency departments, children’s services and those holding a senior role (band 7 and 8)
  • safeguarding professionals
  • sexual health staff
  • school nurses including those who work in independent schools
  • special educational needs and disabilities leads
  • speciality and associate speciality (SAS) doctors working in any level 3 speciality listed above
  • specialist nurses for safeguarding
  • specialist paediatric dentists
  • urgent and unscheduled care staff
  • youth offending team staff

Level 4 – specialist roles – named professionals

Including, but not limited to:

  • heads of adult and children’s safeguarding
  • lead doctors
  • named doctors
  • named GPs and doctors for organisations commissioning primary care
  • named doctors for adults and children’s safeguarding
  • named midwives (in organisations delivering maternity services)
  • named nurses for adults and children’s safeguarding
  • named professionals in ambulance organisations
  • named professionals working in provider or commissioning services

Level 4 and 5

Level 5 – specialist roles – designated professionals

Including, but not limited to:

  • designated doctors
  • designated nurses
  • designated professionals

Board level

  • chief executive officers
  • trust and health board executive and non-executive directors and/or members
  • commissioning body directors

Level 1 training and competencies

Core competencies

Competence at this level is about individuals knowing what to look for which may indicate possible harm and knowing who to contact and seek advice from if they have concerns. Staff should:

  • be able to recognise vulnerabilities of children and adults
  • have an awareness and ability to locate local policies and procedures and how to access support to respond to safeguarding concerns
  • have an awareness of appropriate action, including reporting and documenting concerns safely and seeking advice, particularly if uncertain whether a safeguarding need is present
  • build personal confidence, skills and knowledge to take immediate action through local safeguarding procedures – this should include the ability to escalate concerns if action is not taken
  • have an awareness of professional exploitation and raising concerns about conduct of colleagues
  • have an awareness of consent, information sharing, data protection legislation and acting safely to share information

Knowledge, skills, attitudes and values

Knowledge

All staff should have an understanding of:

  • the objectives of the Prevent strategy and the health contribution to the Prevent agenda
  • grooming and exploitation to support and/or commit acts of terrorism (known as radicalisation), and the context in which it can occur
  • indicators of radicalisation (including physical signs, changes in behaviour, or use of extremist terms and language)
  • the impact of direct (discrimination, friendships, influential peers) and indirect (internet, media) factors on people, and how this might change their thoughts and behaviours
  • the vulnerability factors that can make individuals susceptible to radicalisation
  • appropriate Prevent referral routes (including knowledge of Prevent leads and locally agreed Prevent referral process) and knowledge of how to seek advice
  • how individuals are supported through Prevent, including knowledge of the Channel process
  • the importance of establishing, acting or making a decision in person’s best interests as reflected in legislation and key statutory and non-statutory guidance
  • confidentiality, consent and the importance of sharing information appropriately and the consequences of failing to do so
  • what to do if concerns are not being taken seriously or they experience any other barriers to raising a concern about an adult or child at risk of radicalisation
  • the limits of their own knowledge, and recognition of when to consult colleagues at higher levels

Skills

All staff should have the skills to raise concerns and take action when concerns have been identified. This includes referring concerns to the appropriate individual or body, following locally agreed Prevent referral processes.

Attitudes and values

All staff should:

  • be proactive in acting on issues and concerns, including escalation
  • recognise how their own beliefs, experience and attitudes might influence professional involvement in safeguarding work
  • recognise how their own actions impact on others

Criteria for assessment

All staff should have an understanding of Prevent, enabling them to recognise indicators of radicalisation and understand the reporting process. Staff should be able to:

  • describe the term Prevent, understand its practical applications and understand its situation in relation to CONTEST
  • recognise the Channel process as a multi-agency panel to support vulnerable people at risk of being drawn into terrorism
  • summarise local prevent mechanisms – for example, referral routes, sources of information and advice
  • describe factors that might lead people to become radicalised, the process of radicalisation and risk indicators
  • discuss routes for reporting concerns and seeking advice
  • explain confidentiality, consent and information-sharing requirements in relation to safeguarding concerns
  • summarise the actions taken following the reporting concerns

Training requirements

Basic Prevent awareness training should be included in all staff induction training.

Competency at level 1 can be acquired by completing targeted Prevent training, including:

Competency at level 1 can be acquired by incorporating face-to-face or e-learning Prevent material into the organisation via:

  • induction sessions
  • level 1 safeguarding children training and level 1 safeguarding adults training
  • safeguarding e-learning package

Competency at this level can also be achieved by completing other suitable packages developed by the organisation that clearly demonstrates meeting the needs of staff at level 1.

The minimum training compliance target for organisations at this level is 85%.

Maintaining knowledge and skills

All staff should receive annual updates and 3-yearly refresher training. All refresher safeguarding training should include key information on Prevent including reference to vulnerable groups and the appropriate actions to be taken if a concern is raised.

In addition to these programmes, named or designated professionals should circulate written update briefings and literature to all staff at least annually which would include, for example, any changes in legislation, changes to local policy and procedure or lessons learnt in respect of Prevent.

Additionally, staff can attend relevant local, regional and national professional development activities to maintain competencies. Attendance and/or participation in local counter-terrorism events or regional and national conferences relating to Prevent should be recorded as part of their continuing professional development record. Practitioners should be encouraged to reflect on Prevent practice and share best practice as part of their professional development, documenting their key learning and number of hours.

Level 2 training and competencies

Core competencies

All staff at level 2 should have the core competencies outlined at level 1. They should also be able to:

  • carry out competencies as outlined for level 1
  • address the immediate safety of the person and ensures that a protection plan is put in place immediately when the risk of exploitation or harm is high
  • understand local safeguarding structures and arrangements
  • recognise obligations to act when they have a safeguarding concern and acting is against the expressed wishes of the person
  • be clear about own and colleagues’ roles, responsibilities and professional boundaries, including professional abuse and raising concerns about conduct of colleagues
  • document safeguarding and radicalisation concerns in order to be able to inform the relevant staff and agencies as necessary, maintains appropriate record keeping, and differentiates between fact and opinion
  • share appropriate and relevant information with other teams within relevant information sharing protocols
  • act in accordance with key statutory and non-statutory guidance and legislation

Knowledge, skills, attitudes and values

All staff at level 2 should have the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values outlined for level 1 and should be able to demonstrate the following:

Knowledge

They should be able to demonstrate:

  • understanding of the ways in which radicalisation can impact on an individual
  • understanding of the legal, professional, and ethical responsibilities around information sharing, including the use of assessment framework
  • understanding of the best practice in documentation, record keeping, and data protection issues in relation to information sharing for safeguarding purposes
  • familiarity with the guidance related to participation in radicalisation safeguarding enquiries
  • understanding of the professional duty to report crime in line with organisational and professional guidance
  • understanding of the importance of establishing, acting or making a decision in person’s best interests as reflected in legislation and key statutory and non-statutory guidance

Skills

They should be able to:

  • identify where further support is needed, when to take action, and when to refer to managers, supervisors or other relevant professionals
  • document radicalisation concerns, and maintain appropriate record keeping, differentiating between fact and opinion
  • share appropriate and relevant information between teams – in writing, by telephone, electronically, and in person

Attitudes and values

They should:

  • recognise how their own beliefs, experience and attitudes might influence professional involvement in safeguarding work
  • understand the importance and benefits of working in an environment that supports professionals and colleagues including knowing when to seek and offer support
  • create and support a working environment that enables professionals to develop skills and knowledge in safeguarding

Criteria for assessment

All staff should have an understanding of Prevent, enabling them to recognise indicators of radicalisation and understand the reporting process. Staff should be able to:

  • describe the term Prevent, understand its practical applications and understand its situation in relation to CONTEST
  • recognise the Channel process as a multi-agency panel to support vulnerable people at risk of being drawn into terrorism
  • summarise local prevent mechanisms – for example, referral routes, sources of information and advice
  • describe factors that might lead people to become radicalised, the process of radicalisation and risk indicators
  • discuss routes for reporting concerns and seeking advice
  • explain confidentiality and information-sharing requirements in relation to safeguarding concerns
  • summarise the actions taken following the reporting concerns

Training requirements

Basic Prevent awareness training should be included in all staff induction training.

Competency at level 2 can be acquired by completing targeted Prevent training, including:

Competency at level 2 can be acquired by incorporating face-to face or e-learning Prevent material into the organisation via:

  • induction sessions
  • level 2 safeguarding children training and level 2 safeguarding adults training
  • safeguarding e-learning package

Competency at level 2 can also be achieved by any other suitable package developed by the organisation that clearly demonstrates meeting the needs of staff at level 2.

The minimum training compliance target for organisations at this level is 85%.

Maintaining knowledge and skills

All staff should receive annual updates and 3-yearly refresher training. All refresher safeguarding training should include key information on Prevent, including reference to vulnerable groups and the appropriate actions to be taken if a concern is raised.

In addition to these programmes, named or designated professionals should circulate written update briefings and literature to all staff at least annually which would include, for example, any changes in legislation, changes to local policy and procedure or lessons learnt in respect of Prevent.

Additionally, staff can attend relevant local, regional and national continuing professional development activities to maintain competencies. Attendance and/or participation in local counter-terrorism events or regional and national conferences relating to Prevent should be recorded as part of their continuing professional development record. Practitioners should be encouraged to reflect on Prevent practice and share best practice as part of their professional development, documenting their key learning and number of hours.

Level 3 training and competencies

Core competencies

All staff at level 3 should have the core competencies outlined at levels 1 and 2. They should also be able to:

  • know how to support and redirect vulnerable individuals at risk of being groomed into terrorist related activities
  • know how to share concerns, get advice and make Prevent referrals
  • draw on clinical and professional knowledge and expertise of what constitutes radicalisation to support others in fulfilling their safeguarding duties

Knowledge, skills, attitudes and values

Knowledge

In addition to levels 1 and 2, staff should have knowledge and understanding of:

  • their organisation’s contribution to the Prevent agenda
  • the current threat level, the role of ideology in radicalisation and that Prevent can be applied to all forms of terrorism, present or emerging
  • vulnerability factors that make individuals susceptible to radicalisation
  • Channel multi-agency arrangements to provide support and redirection to individuals at risk of radicalisation
  • a point of contact for advice and reporting concerns
  • how to recognise, understand, share concerns, seek support and advice, and make referrals within their own organisations and with other agencies where appropriate
  • the legal, professional and ethical responsibilities around information sharing, including the use of electronic records, information governance, General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), local authority databases, directories and assessment frameworks
  • the best practice in documentation, record keeping and data protection issues in relation to information sharing for safeguarding purposes
  • the Caldicott Principles of information sharing, including the 7th principle: “The duty to share information can be as important as the duty to protect patient confidentiality”
  • professional duty to report crime in line with organisational and professional guidance
  • recognise the limits of their own knowledge, and recognition of when to consult colleagues at higher levels

Skills

In addition to levels 1 and 2, staff should have the skills to:

  • document radicalisation and exploitation concerns, and maintain appropriate record keeping, differentiating between fact and opinion
  • share appropriate and relevant information between teams and agencies (in written form, verbally and electronically), within relevant information sharing protocols
  • act proactively to reduce the likelihood of harm or to individuals at risk
  • identify when further support is needed, when to take action, and when to refer to managers, supervisors or other relevant professionals – this will involve using locally agreed Prevent referral processes
  • demonstrate effective interpersonal skills

Attitudes and values

Staff should:

  • support a culture of inclusivity in diversity and equality for staff and patients and service users
  • understand the importance and benefits of working in an environment that supports professionals and colleagues, including knowing when to seek and offer support
  • create and support a working environment that enables professionals to develop skills and knowledge in safeguarding
  • understand the potential personal impact of safeguarding work on professionals and colleagues
  • recognise when additional support is needed in managing adult and/or child safeguarding, including support with all legal and court activities (such as writing statements and preparing for attending court) and the need to debrief in relation to a case or other experience where appropriate to role

Criteria for assessment

Staff with additional safeguarding responsibilities will build on the foundational knowledge and skills gained through basic Prevent awareness training, enabling them to gain a greater understanding of their role within the Prevent agenda. This will include the ability to:

  • discuss their own organisation’s Prevent policy and guidelines
  • explain how to report concerns within their own area
  • clarify differences between national and local terrorist threats
  • identify their own responsibilities for Prevent and safeguarding
  • document concerns in a means which captures the wishes and views of different people at risk, differentiate between fact and option, and comply with the Data Protection Act 2018
  • explain the tenets of appropriate and relevant information sharing

Training requirements

Basic Prevent awareness training should be included in all staff induction training.

Training at level 3 can be delivered through a combination of face-to-face and e-learning, including:

The minimum training compliance target for organisations at this level is 85%.

Maintaining knowledge and skills

All staff should receive annual updates and a 3-yearly refresher. This refresher can be in the form of training or a blended learning approach, to be determined at a local level by individual providers and organisations.

Organisations should ensure that staff are provided with appropriate updating and/or briefing on Prevent at least yearly. Relevant training may also be accessed in a number of ways at local, regional or national level and may be multi-disciplinary or inter-agency. All training and development undertaken should be recorded on completion. Knowledge and skills should be reviewed during the annual appraisal process ensuring that individuals are up to date with current policy and practice, any education and training needs being identified to develop and maintain the required knowledge and skills.

In addition to these programmes, named or designated professionals should circulate written update briefings and literature to all staff at least annually which would include, for example, any changes in legislation, changes to local policy and procedure or lessons learnt in respect of Prevent.

Additionally, staff can attend relevant local, regional and national continuing professional development activities to maintain competencies. Attendance and/or participation in local counter-terrorism events or regional and national conferences relating to Prevent should be recorded as part of their continuing professional development record. Practitioners should be encouraged to reflect on Prevent practice and share best practice as part of their professional development, documenting their key learning and number of hours.

Level 4 training and competencies

Core competencies

All staff at level 4 should have the core competencies outlined at level 1, 2 and 3. They should also be able to:

  • align national Prevent guidance to local practice
  • contribute as a member of the safeguarding team to the development of strong internal Prevent policy, guidelines and protocols
  • effectively communicate local Prevent knowledge, research and findings from audits, challenge poor practice and address areas where there is an identified training and development opportunity
  • work with the safeguarding team and partners in other agencies to conduct Prevent training needs analysis for staff in the organisations covered
  • work effectively with Prevent and safeguarding colleagues from other organisations, providing advice as appropriate
  • provide advice and information about Prevent to the employing authority, both proactively and reactively – this includes the board, directors and senior managers
  • provide specialist advice to practitioners, both actively and reactively, including clarification about organisational policies and legal issues relevant to Prevent
  • undertake risk assessments of the organisation’s ability to safeguard and protect children and adults from vulnerability to radicalisation

Knowledge, skills, attitudes and values

Knowledge

In addition to levels 1, 2 and 3, staff should have knowledge and understanding of:

  • the legal and policy context of Prevent
  • Channel’s multi-agency arrangements to provide support and redirection to individuals at risk of radicalisation
  • community safety processes and referral pathways
  • risk indicators relating to people who are being radicalised
  • the term ‘vulnerable’ in the context of Prevent and what vulnerabilities could be exploited by terrorist groups
  • influence and the concepts of polarisation and the use of narratives and ideology
  • the limits of their own knowledge, and recognition of when to consult colleagues in the tier above

Skills

In addition to levels 1, 2 and 3, staff should have the skills to:

  • advise staff in relation to meeting Prevent and safeguarding responsibilities
  • advise others about Prevent guidance and strategies which hold relevance to their organisation and role
  • apply critical thinking to Prevent referrals
  • identify the need for additional information, where required, prior to progressing a referral
  • raise concerns, and take action when safeguarding concerns have been identified
  • be able to identify and advise others of appropriate Prevent reporting pathways

Attitudes and values

As outlined in levels 1, 2 and 3.

Criteria for assessment

Staff with specialist roles will be able to demonstrate direct work skills with someone who has been identified at risk of radicalisation and will be able to participate effectively in a Channel panel. This will include the ability to:

  • discuss Prevent in the context of CONTEST and summarise the current threat level
  • clarify the Channel process and Prevent referral process
  • identify relevant community safety processes and pathways
  • describe the Prevent case management process and its relevance to Channel, including in relation to the role of Channel co-ordinators and counter-terrorism police
  • identify and advise on factors indicating vulnerability to radicalisation and signs of radicalisation
  • discuss concerns raised by self or others with an appropriate line manager or Prevent and safeguarding lead
  • complete an appropriate referral
  • participate in difficult and sensitive conversations with individuals and professionals
  • create and maintain accurate records in line with the Data Protection Act 2018 and information sharing guidance
  • demonstrate ways of working which proactively prevent people at risk of radicalisation from being radicalised, including effective risk assessment and case management which takes account of the effects of potential interventions
  • create effective multi-agency safeguarding actions plans which are person-centred and take account of mental capacity
  • justify the proportionality and appropriateness of support proposed in action plans

Training requirements

Training should be delivered through a combination of face-to-face and e-learning. All staff should receive annual updates and 3-yearly refresher training. Training at level 4 will include the training required at levels 1 to 3 and will negate the need to undertake refresher training at levels 1 to 3 in addition to level 4.

The minimum training compliance target for organisations at this level is 85%.

Maintaining knowledge and skills

Named professionals should attend a minimum of 24 hours of education, training and learning over a 3-year period. This should include clinical leadership, appraisal and supervision training. Named professionals should participate regularly in support groups or peer support networks for specialist professionals at a local and national level, according to professional guidelines (attendance should be recorded).

Individuals should ensure that staff are provided with appropriate updating and/or briefing on Prevent at least yearly. Relevant training may also be accessed in a number of ways at local, regional or national level and may be multi-disciplinary or inter-agency. All training and development undertaken should be recorded on completion. Knowledge and skills should be reviewed during the annual appraisal process ensuring that individuals are up to date with current policy and practice, any education and training needs being identified to develop and maintain the required knowledge and skills.

Additionally, staff can attend relevant local, regional and national continuing professional development activities to maintain competencies. Attendance and participation in local counter-terrorism events or regional and national conferences relating to Prevent should be recorded as part of their continuing professional development record. Practitioners should be encouraged to reflect on Prevent practice and share best practice as part of their professional development, documenting their key learning and number of hours.

Prevent lead training and competencies

Core competencies

All staff at level 4 should have the core competencies outlined at level 1, 2, and 3. They should also be able to:

  • align national guidance to local practice
  • contribute as a member of the safeguarding team to the development of internal safeguarding policy, guidelines and protocols
  • work effectively with colleagues from other organisations, providing advice as appropriate
  • effectively communicate local safeguarding knowledge, research and findings from audits and challenge poor practice
  • support and develop improvements in care, practice, local responses and services
  • act in response to identified locality knowledge needs
  • provide specialist advice to practitioners, both actively and reactively, including clarification about organisational policies, legal issues and the management of child protection cases
  • facilitate and contributes to own organisation audits, multi-agency audits and statutory inspections
  • establish governance structure and annual reporting monitoring and review

Knowledge, skills, attitudes and values

Knowledge

In addition to levels 1, 2 and 3, staff should have an understanding of:

  • best practice in adult and/or child safeguarding and Prevent
  • risk management processes and the development of risk plans
  • advocacy support
  • providing managerial oversight of Prevent work
  • providing appropriate and proportionate support
  • contextual learning
  • the multi-agency local and regional delivery model for Prevent
  • the role of Channel panels and the requirements of health to attend where necessary
  • who the local Prevent engagement officer, local authority Prevent lead and counter-terrorism police officer are for their local area, and how to contact them
  • who the NHS regional safeguarding team are for their local area and how to contact them
  • the strands of the UK counter-terrorism Strategy (CONTEST), and the significance of safeguarding within the Prevent strand
  • the statutory and contractual requirements for the delivery of Prevent, inclusive of statutory and non-statutory guidance
  • the Prevent expectations at level 3 and below
  • the government’s protective security marking system
  • the counter-terrorism policing national referral form
  • the guidance document building partnerships staying safe and how to use the outlined core standards to measure compliance
  • the statutory, contractual, policy and other Prevent duties and obligations that apply to their own organisation
  • up-to-date community safety processes and access points
  • the limits of their own knowledge, and recognition of when to consult colleagues in the tier above

Skills

In addition to levels 1, 2 and 3, staff should have the skills to:

  • provide effective strategic leadership for Prevent within their own organisation, and across the local area (where applicable)
  • implement and audit the effectiveness of Prevent across the organisation against current national guidelines and quality standards
  • advise managers and practitioners on their participation in local panels
  • apply understanding of CONTEST, and the significance of safeguarding within Prevent, within their organisation
  • interpret the statutory, contractual, policy and/or other Prevent duties and obligations that apply to their own organisations – including interpreting this for others
  • discuss, share and apply the best practice and knowledge in Prevent including:
    • the latest evidence and intelligence and impact for practitioners, including relating the relevance of counter-terrorism local profiles (CTLPs) to organisation and colleagues
    • an advanced understanding of Prevent legislation, information sharing, information governance, confidentiality and consent
    • an advanced knowledge of relevant local, national and international issues and their implications for Prevent
  • conduct a Prevent training needs analysis and to design, plan and deliver and evaluate training and awareness sessions for staff in their organisation
  • plan, design, deliver and evaluate inter-agency safeguarding and Prevent training for staff across healthcare services in partnership with colleagues in other organisations and agencies
  • complete and submit quarterly Prevent assurance data returns to NHS England and their lead commissioner to monitor performance
  • contribute to any serious case reviews, or other reviews, for a Prevent case
  • chair meetings effectively
  • represent their own organisation at multi-agency meetings and work in partnership to deliver mutually agreed outcomes
  • manage the information sharing process appropriately, and in accordance with relevant policies, guidance and legislation, to effectively escalate with other partners
  • engage all relevant partners in Prevent work
  • provide effective support to staff engaged in Prevent work
  • promote research, evidence and best practice in adult and child safeguarding and Prevent
  • strategically apply responsibilities to act on Prevent and assess the risk to the wider organisation

Attitudes and values

As outlined in levels 1, 2 and 3.

Criteria for assessment

Alongside the learning outcomes for levels 1, 2 and 3, staff should be able to:

  • demonstrate clear decision-making processes, as illustrated in their action plans for Channel panels
  • demonstrate a high level of interpersonal skills and an ability to manage difficult conversations
  • clarify Prevent referral thresholds with colleagues
  • apply detailed understanding of adult and child safeguarding policies and law, and meet these requirements in the context of Prevent – including situations where a Channel referral is not appropriate
  • demonstrate a practical understanding of the issues of capacity and consent, and confidently apply this in relation to safeguarding and the context of Prevent
  • define the content and extent of the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015, and the statutory implications of this legislation and CONTEST

Training requirements

Competency can be acquired by completing training as outlined in levels 1, 2 and 3. Training should be delivered through a combination of face-to-face and e-learning.

Competencies of a Prevent Lead can additionally be developed through:

  • GOV.UK Channel e-learning
  • local counter-terrorism events
  • regional and national conferences on safeguarding and Prevent
  • CTLP briefings
  • participation in local and/or regional Prevent governance processes
  • membership and participation in Channel panels
  • shadowing opportunities
  • self-reflected learning as a result of involvement in a Prevent and/or Channel case
  • additional reading, including academic papers and case studies
  • developing and distribution Prevent communications products (for example, newsletters)
  • updated legislation and guidance

The compliance target for organisational Prevent leads is 100%.

Maintaining knowledge and skills

All staff should receive annual updates and a 3-yearly refresher. This refresher can be in the form of training or a blended learning approach, to be determined at a local level by individual providers and organisations.

Competence, knowledge and skills should be reviewed annually as part of an individual’s appraisal to ensure individuals are up to date with current Prevent policy and practice to undertake the role of organisational Prevent lead.

Additionally, staff can attend relevant local, regional and national continuing professional development activities to maintain competencies, and these should be recorded as part of their continuing professional development record. Practitioners should be encouraged to reflect on Prevent practice and share best practice as part of their professional development, documenting their key learning and number of hours.

Level 5 training and competencies

Core competencies

All staff at level 5 should have the core competencies outlined at level 1, 2, 3 and 4. They should also be able to:

  • conduct training needs analysis for Prevent, and commission, plan, design, deliver and evaluate Prevent training and teaching for staff across healthcare services
  • take a lead role in ensuring robust processes are in place across healthcare services to learn lessons from cases where an individual has been exploited by extremists
  • give appropriate advice to specialist safeguarding and Prevent professionals working within organisations delivering health services and to other agencies
  • take a strategic and professional lead across healthcare services on all aspects of Prevent, working closely with adult and child safeguarding colleagues
  • provide expert advice and guidance, aiming to continually improve the quality of Prevent knowledge and referrals in order to improve health outcomes for vulnerable individuals
  • provide expert advice to service planners and commissioners, ensuring all services commissioned meet statutory requirements under the Prevent duty

Knowledge, skills, attitudes and values

Knowledge

In addition to levels 1, 2, 3 and 4, staff should have:

  • advanced and in-depth knowledge of statutory responsibilities under the Prevent duty
  • advanced understanding of the court and criminal justice systems, the role of the different courts, the burden of proof, and the role of professional witnesses and expert witnesses in the different stages of the court process
  • knowledge and understanding of how to lead the implementation of national Prevent policy and guidance, and audit the effectiveness and quality of services across all healthcare services against quality standards
  • advanced understanding of Prevent training requirements

Skills

All staff should have the skills to:

  • oversee safeguarding quality assurance processes across the whole of healthcare services, including for Prevent
  • evaluate and update local procedures and policies in light of relevant national Prevent policy developments
  • work with communications teams to proactively deal with strategic communications and the media (if necessitated by their role) on Prevent delivery across healthcare services
  • work in partnership on strategic Prevent-related projects with executive officers at local, regional and national bodies, as appropriate
  • work in partnership with Prevent, counter-terrorism and safeguarding colleagues locally, regionally and nationally

Attitudes and values

As outlined in levels 1, 2, 3 and 4.

Criteria for assessment

Alongside the learning outcomes for levels 1, 2, 3 and 4, staff should be able to conduct a training needs analysis for Prevent, and know how to commission, plan, design, deliver and evaluate Prevent single and inter-agency training and teaching for staff across healthcare services.

They should take a lead role in:

  • the implementation of national Prevent policy and guidance and auditing the effectiveness and quality of services across healthcare services against quality standards
  • strategic and professional leadership across healthcare services on all aspects of Prevent
  • giving appropriate advice on Prevent to professionals working within organisations delivering health services and to other agencies
  • providing expert advice on increasing quality and productivity, and improving health outcomes for individuals vulnerable to radicalisation
  • providing expert advice to service planners and commissioners, to ensure all services commissioned meet the statutory requirement to safeguard vulnerable individuals from radicalisation
  • monitoring services across healthcare services to ensure adherence to legislation, policy and key statutory and non-statutory guidance

They should apply in practice:

  • advanced and in-depth knowledge of national Prevent policy
  • advanced understanding of Prevent training requirements
  • evaluating and updating local procedures and policies in light of relevant national Prevent policy developments

Training requirements

Training should be delivered through a combination of face-to-face and e-learning. All staff should receive annual updates and 3-yearly refresher training. Training at level 5 will include the training required at levels 1 to 4 and will negate the need to undertake refresher training at levels 1 to 4 in addition to level 5.

The minimum training compliance target for organisations at this level is 85%.

Maintaining knowledge and skills

Designated professionals should attend a minimum of 24 hours of education, training and learning over a 3-year period. This should include leadership, appraisal and supervision training, and the context of other professional’s work. Designated professionals should participate regularly in support groups or peer support networks for safeguarding professionals at a local, regional and national level according to professional guidelines (attendance should be recorded).

Individuals should ensure that staff are provided with appropriate updating and/or briefing on Prevent at least yearly. Relevant training may also be accessed in a number of ways at local, regional or national level and may be multi-disciplinary or inter-agency. All training and development undertaken should be recorded on completion. Knowledge and skills should be reviewed during the annual appraisal process ensuring that individuals are up to date with current policy and practice, any education and training needs being identified to develop and maintain the required knowledge and skills.

Additionally, staff can attend relevant local, regional and national continuing professional development activities to maintain competencies. Attendance and/or participation in local counter-terrorism events or regional and national conferences relating to Prevent should be recorded as part of their continuing professional development record. Practitioners should be encouraged to reflect on Prevent practice and share best practice as part of their professional development, documenting their key learning and number of hours.

Level 6 training and competencies

It is envisaged that chief executives of healthcare organisations take overall (executive) responsibility for safeguarding strategy and policy, including safe staffing levels, with additional leadership being provided at board level by the executive director with the lead for safeguarding. All board members, including non-executive members, must have a level of knowledge equivalent to all staff working within the healthcare setting (level 1) as well as additional knowledge-based competencies by virtue of their board membership, as outlined below. All boards should have access to safeguarding advice and expertise through designated or named professionals.

Commissioning bodies have a critical role in quality assuring providers systems and processes, thereby ensuring they are meeting their safeguarding responsibilities.

Designated safeguarding professionals within commissioning organisations provide expert advice to commissioners.

Core competencies

All staff at level 6 should have the core competencies outlined at level 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. They should also:

  • have knowledge of the common presenting features of radicalisation and the context in which it presents to healthcare staff
  • have an understanding of the statutory role of the board in safeguarding from radicalisation, including:
    • partnership arrangements
    • policies, risks and performance indicators
    • staff’s roles and responsibilities in safeguarding
    • the expectations of regulatory bodies in safeguarding
  • take organisational responsibility for Prevent in their organisation and assure their statutory role has been fulfilled

Knowledge, skills, attitudes and values

Knowledge

In addition to the knowledge listed in level 1, staff should have an understanding of:

  • agencies involved in Prevent, their roles and responsibilities, and the importance of interagency co-operation
  • statutory Prevent duties
  • strategic responsibilities, in order to hold own and other applicable organisations to account for Prevent work
  • the ethical, legal and professional obligations around information sharing related to Prevent
  • the role of the Prevent lead within their own organisation
  • the need for provision of and compliance with staff training both within commissioning and provider organisations as an organisational necessity
  • the importance of safeguarding policies with regard to personnel, including use of vetting and barring and safe recruitment, and the requirement for maintaining, keeping them up to date and reviewed at regular intervals to ensure they continue to meet organisational needs
  • the regulation and inspection processes and implications for the organisation if standards are not met by either commissioners or providers
  • the importance of regular reporting and monitoring of Prevent arrangements within provider organisations
  • the requirement of the board to have access to appropriate high-quality advice on Prevent matters from lead, named or designated and nominated professionals
  • the limits of their own knowledge, and recognition of when to consult other partners

Skills

In addition to the skills list in level 1, staff should have the skills to:

  • recognise possible signs of radicalisation
  • seek appropriate advice and report concerns
  • challenge and scrutinise safeguarding information to include performance data, partnership working and regulatory inspections to enable appropriate assurance of the organisation’s performance in safeguarding
  • have highly developed skills and expertise in high-level escalation in multi-agency working and internal escalation to resolve safeguarding issues at an executive level supported by designated and named professionals
  • promote person-centred and outcome-based approaches
  • contribute appropriate support, challenge and enquiry in a multi-agency setting

Attitudes and values

Staff should:

  • show willingness as an individual to listen to individuals and to act on issues and concerns related to Prevent, and expect that the organisation and professionals within it value and listen to the views of individuals
  • show willingness to work in partnership with other organisations and patients and families to promote safeguarding from radicalisation
  • show willingness to promote a positive culture around safeguarding within the organisation – this includes recognising the challenges and complexity faced by front-line professionals in carrying out their safeguarding duties, recognising the emotional impact that safeguarding can have on these professionals and ensuring that there is ample support available for them
  • facilitate a no-blame culture when reviewing safeguarding cases

Criteria for assessment

Staff at board level should build on the foundational knowledge and skills gained through basic Prevent awareness training. This will include the ability to:

  • demonstrate knowledge of statutory Prevent requirements and of the interaction between Prevent and other areas of safeguarding
  • demonstrate an awareness and understanding of effective board level leadership for the organisations’ Prevent arrangements
  • understand how to assure Prevent policies are in place and how to measure whether Prevent roles and responsibilities within their organisation are meeting statutory Prevent duties
  • demonstrate collaborative working with lead and nominated professionals across agencies
  • understand the Prevent duty guidance and its application to their own organisation
  • recognise the links between adult and children’s safeguarding, other areas of exploitation, and Prevent referrals
  • understand one’s own role as a strategic lead, and of partner organisations, as a part of local Prevent governance processes
  • demonstrate an understanding of appropriate referral mechanisms and information sharing
  • build on foundational knowledge and skills gained through basic Prevent awareness training, enabling them to understand their own role in the Prevent agenda

Training requirements

Competency at level 6 can be acquired by completing targeted Prevent training, including:

Competency at this level can also be achieved by completing other suitable packages developed by the organisation that clearly demonstrates meeting the needs of staff at level 6.

Maintaining knowledge and skills

All staff should receive annual updates and 3-yearly refresher training.

In addition to basic Prevent awareness training, staff at level 6 should receive organisational training and briefings to support board members in their understanding and accountability in relation to safeguarding and vulnerability to radicalisation.

References and relevant guidance

The following legislation, regulation and guidance has been used to inform this document, and should be read in conjunction with it.

Adult safeguarding: roles and competencies for health care staff (Royal College of Nursing, 2018)

Building Partnerships, Staying Safe: guidance for healthcare organisations

Caldicott Principles

Care Act 2014

Channel duty guidance

CONTEST strategy 3.0

Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015

Children Act 1989

Children Act 2004

Crime and Disorder Act 1998

Equality Act 2010

Guidance for mental health services in exercising duties to safeguard people from the risk of radicalisation (NHS England, 2017)

Health and Social Care Act 2012

Human Rights Act 1998

Information sharing advice for safeguarding practitioners

Looked after children: roles and competencies for healthcare staff (Royal College of Nursing, 2020)

Mental Capacity Act 2005

Mental Capacity (Amendment) Act 2019

NHS Standard Contract

Prevent duty guidance

Safeguarding Adults: a guide for health care staff

Safeguarding children and young people: roles and competencies for healthcare staff (Royal College of Nursing, 2019)

Terrorism Act 2000

Working together to safeguard children



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