Both genetic traits and environmental influences affect parent-child interactions, but little is known about how child behavior affects parenting and subsequent child outcomes.
Elizabeth Shewaku, a former PhD student at Pennsylvania State University, Developmental psychology He is currently a postdoctoral fellow at Michigan State University, investigating the correlation between stimulating genes and the environment. Negative emotions, Affects the parenting environment.
The works that appear in Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Is part of Shewaku’s treatise and is the first of three planned treatises.
“I was interested in finding out how it is inherited. Child Traits are associated with childhood emotions and show how emotions of children genetically affected in early childhood are associated with parenting and subsequent behavioral outcomes of the child. “Most of the research on child behavior and parenting focuses on the family that feeds the child. However, parents and children share both genetics and the environment, thus distinguishing between genetic and environmental effects. It’s difficult to do. ”
The research team used the Early Growth and Development Study, a longitudinal adoption study involving 561 adopted children from two cohorts and their associated adoptive and birth parents, to track them from early childhood to early adolescence. Adoption design helps to shed light on genetic and environmental effects. Adoptive parents are genetically independent of the child, but provide a rearing environment, while the father is genetically associated with the child. However, it does not provide a training environment.
“We were very fortunate to have access to long-term data based on genetic information. By using these data, we can play a role in certain environmental influences, such as genetic traits in parenting and child adaptation. I was able to evaluate it, “said Shewark, who was advised. It was co-funded by Professors Jenae Neiderhiser and Kristin Buss, co-funded by the Institute of Social Sciences, Pennsylvania State University.
The research team evaluated the biological parental temperament, the child’s anger and sadness in four and a half years, followed by the child’s behavioral problems and social abilities in seven years. In addition to the emotions and behaviors of the child, the research team also examined the hostility and warmth of adoptive parents.
Researchers found that the anger of a four-and-a-half-year-old child caused hostility from a six-year-old adoptive parent and was associated with increased behavioral problems in a seven-year-old child.
“We also found various links between anger and sadness. For example, we found that child anger was associated with more hostile parenting. This is partly related to children. The anger and sadness of the child was not associated with warm parenting in our study, “explained Shewaku. “Warm parenting has been shown to be important for child adaptation. Findings of stimulating gene-environment interactions are mixed with warm parenting, and the stimulating effect is that of the overall parent. It suggests that it may be present in certain positive parenting behaviors, not warmth. “
According to Neiderhiser, this study shows how important it is to consider the role of children in their own development.
“In this study, we found that children influence the way they raise their children. motionIn other words, both parents and children influence a child’s adaptation, “says Neiderhiser.
This study is the first in a series of three treatises. “The next treatise focuses on how children’s behaviors and genetic traits affect the teacher-child relationship and how it affects children’s adaptation,” Shewaku said. “The work of my treatise really inspired me to continue investigating how a child’s genetic characteristics and their environment affect the outcome of the child’s development. Currently, I am conducting this study in the community. Extends to include. ”
Both nature and care are important for early behavioral problems in children
Elizabeth A. Shewark et al, The role of children’s negative emotions in parenting and child adaptation: Gene-environment interactions, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (2021). DOI: 10.1111 / jcpp.13420
Pennsylvania State University
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